## Common Terms

Common Language Arts & Math Terms for K-5 Report Card

(Below are terms common to the new Standards-Based Report Cards for grades K-5)

Language Arts Terms

Phonics Skills- the system of relationships between letters and sounds.  This may include the blending of sounds of letters, letter combinations (such as blends), and word parts (word families, prefixes, and suffixes)

Decoding-the ability to apply knowledge of letter-sound relationships including knowledge of letter patterns to correctly pronounce written words.

Emergent Reader Texts-books with large, easy to see print with repeated phrases and patterns, high frequency words, and illustrations that support the predictable text.

Graphic and Text Features-includes table of contents, titles, captions, diagrams, charts, photos and illustrations and other features to help a reader better understand.

Word Analysis Skills- understanding the meanings and spellings of root words, prefixes and suffixes, and the origins of words and applying them to figure out the meaning of words.

Multisyllabic words-words that have more than 1 syllable.

Variety of Texts-this would include different book types and examples of reading such as picture books, short stories, novels, biographies, poems, essays, diaries, letters, and textbooks.

Conventions of standard English Grammar and Usage- this includes spelling, capitalization, punctuation, paragraph formation, utilizing correct verb tense and subject-verb agreement in sentence writing, and expressing their ideas appropriately with simple and complex sentences.

Reading Fluency--the ability to read a text with little decoding, accurately and with expression in order to understand the meaning of text.

Math Terms

Fluency: Computational fluency refers to having efficient and accurate methods for computing. Students exhibit computational fluency when they demonstrate flexibility in the computational methods they choose, understand and can explain these methods, and produce accurate answers efficiently. (NCTM)

Composes numbers: Build a number based on place value (ex: 539 is 500 + 30 + 9)

Decomposes numbers: Break a number apart (ex: 8 + 7 = ? Student thinks 7 is same as 5 + 2, so 8 + 2 = 10 and 10 + 5 = 15)

Commutative Property for addition/multiplication: The “order” law. The order of the addends/factors can change, but the total stays the same. (ex: 7 x 8 = 56 and 8 x 7 = 56)

Associative Property for addition/multiplication: The “grouping” law. The grouping of addends/factors can change, but the total stays the same. (ex: [8 + 4] + 6 = 18 and 8 + [4 + 6] = 18.)

Identity Property for addition: any number plus zero is that number. (ex: 7 + 0 = 7)

Identity Property for multiplication: any number multiplied by one is that number. (ex: 12 x 1 = 12)

Distributive Property: The distribution property involves the operations of multiplication and addition or multiplication and subtraction. When we use the distributive property, we are multiplying each term inside the parentheses with the term outside of the parentheses. (ex: 5 ( x + 2) = 5(x) + 5(2))

Arrays: a set of objects arranged in order, often in rows and columns

Place Value: The value of a digit depending on its place in a number

Standard Algorithm: a way of setting out a step-by-step mathematical procedure

Algebraic expressions: a mathematical phrase that can contain ordinary numbers, variables (like x or y) and operations (like add, subtract, multiply, and divide).

2-Dimensional Shapes: having two dimensions (length and width-squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, rhombus)

3-Dimensional Figures: having three dimensions (length, width, and height-cubes, cones, cylinders, spheres)

Defining Attributes of Shapes: characteristic of shape (ex: number of sides, number of angles, types of angles)

Attends to precision: focus on clarity and accuracy of process and outcome in problem solving

Uses appropriate tools and models efficiently: use math resources to deepen understanding of concepts and solve problems