Special Services Handbook

We acknowledge the sample Special Education Parent Handbook forwarded to us from a number of school districts throughout
Our thanks are extended to the Madison and Guilford Pupil Personnel administrators in particular, for permitting us
 to replicate many of the resources included in this document. 
 - Kimberly Pearce, Director of Special Services


Every child has a right to a free, appropriate public education (FAPE). Some students have disabilities that make it difficult for them to learn in the general public school program without special education services. The Clinton Public Schools Department of Special Services assures that all students with disabilities between the ages of 3 and 21 will have appropriate programs of instruction and related services designed to meet their individual needs.

When recommended by a Planning and Placement team, special education instruction and related services are provided to Clinton students, at all grade levels, by certified and/or licensed professionals. Programs for students with disabilities are designed to support participation in the general education school program, whenever possible.

What is Special Education?

Federal regulations define Special Education as specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability.

Specially Designed Instruction means appropriate adaptation of content, methodology, or delivery of instruction.  In turn, related services are provided to assist students to benefit from their specially designed instruction program.  Students who are identified as having one of the specific disability exceptionalities as determined by a multidisciplinary team are eligible for special education and related services.  Having one of the specific disabilities is not in of itself enough to qualify a child for special education. IDEA requires that the disability adversely affect a child's performance at school. Special education is available to eligible students from the time of their third birthday to graduation or age 21. If an eligible student turns 21 during the school year, special education will continue until the end of the school year.

For the pre-school child, eligibility for special education is determined by a Planning and Placement Team evaluation; the type and degree of exceptionality must be such that, without special education, it is unlikely that the child will be able to make satisfactory educational progress when reaching school age.

In the Clinton Public Schools, consultative services to teachers and instructional services to students with disabilities are provided by teachers trained in special education.  The extent of the special education teacher's involvement with a student with a disability will vary, depending upon the student's need for specialized instruction.  The special education teacher and the classroom teachers collaborate on the selection and modification of lessons and activities that are designed to enhance student success in the general education classroom.

Student Assistance Team
A Pre-referral Process

The Student Assistance Team (SAT) is a general education initiative and acts as a pre-referral process before a referral to special education review and evaluation is made; emergency situations might dictate a more timely procedure. A Student Assistance Team (SAT) is in place in each school and is composed of pertinent staff members who meet to review their concerns and plan strategies to assist particular students in their general education classrooms and to monitor those students' progress. Parents are made aware of this pre-referral process before it is initiated. A staff member or parent may direct concerns regarding particular students to the SAT. Subsequently, intervention strategies are implemented for the referred student.

After intervention strategies have been implemented, the SAT meets to evaluate student progress, to determine success of strategies, and to decide on continuation or revision of interventions. Most often, problems are resolved at this level.

Following interventions, team members may believe it is necessary to refer a student for evaluation/assessment to consider eligibility for special education. Students are referred to the Child Study Team (CST) only after the resources/strategies of the general education program are fully expended.

The Referral Process

Referrals usually come from the SAT (Student Assistance Team), the student's teacher, or his/her parent to the Student Assistance Team. Referrals can, however, be made from other sources such as an agency or family physician. If evidence is produced that special education services may be needed, a referral is then made to the CST and onto a designated Planning and Placement Team (PPT).  Before the PPT can proceed to gather information or to evaluate the student and recommend an appropriate program, parents must be informed that their child is being considered for special education and they must give written consent before evaluation and testing can begin.  Information is obtained only with the knowledge and consent of the parents and is made available to the parents.  Parents are provided with a written notice about a PPT meeting at least five school days prior to the scheduled meeting date. 

Parents may refuse to give consent for the evaluation and placement. They may also revoke consent if it has already been given. Regulations governing special education provide specific time schedules during which the evaluation and placement procedures must be completed. Placement of a student into a special program in the school district must take place within 45 school days of the referral date. Generally, placement out of the school district must occur within 60 school days of the referral date. These placement time limits do not include the time required to obtain written parental consent.

Planning and Placement Team Meeting (PPT)
The Team Process at Work

The Planning and Placement Team meeting is required by law to convene in the following situations:

  • initiate and discuss evaluations/assessments,

  • determine eligibility for special education after reviewing results of evaluation,

  • develop the Individualized Education Program (IEP),

  • review or revise a student's services on an annual basis or more frequently if deemed necessary,

  • determine appropriate placement (in or out of district),

  • terminate special education and/or related services.

Parents must receive notice at least five days prior to a PPT meeting stating the time, place, and purpose of the meeting and a list of invited participants.

A PPT meeting must include a representative of the local education agency, a special education teacher, a general education teacher, and, as needed, a representative(s) from student services (speech and language pathologist, school psychologist, school social worker, occupational therapist, physical therapist or school nurse). Other participants may include school consultants as appropriate (medical advisor, psychiatrist, psychologist, educator, etc.). Parents have the right to participate in their child's PPT meeting and in the decision making process as equal partners. Students should be included whenever possible or appropriate, especially during transition planning.

As indicated, notice of the PPT meeting will include a list of invited participants.  For additional support, parents may bring persons of their choice to the PPT meeting.  An interpreter will be supplied if needed.

At the beginning of the meeting, all participants are introduced. Parents will be fully informed and receive a copy of their due process rights.

PPT recommendations will be recorded, and in addition, a summary may be documented. Recommendations should be reviewed at the end of the meeting. If parents disagree with the summary, they may submit their own statement noting their areas of concern.

The Planning and Placement Team (PPT) should work toward consensus, but the school district has the ultimate responsibility to ensure that the IEP includes the services that the student needs in order to receive FAPE.

Although issues and concerns may be addressed through informal communications, the PPT meeting is the only legal body that may develop or change components of a student's IEP.

Parents have the right to reconvene a PPT meeting at any time to review, to revise, or to change an IEP.

A PPT meeting must be scheduled at a time and place mutually convenient for both parents and school personnel.

Helpful Suggestions for Parents
in Preparation for a PPT

Talk to your child.  Inquire about your child's feelings towards school.  Identify his/her likes and dislikes.  Ask if there is something that he/she would like to do better.

Meet with your child's teachers before hand for an informal update on your child's progress and behavior during the school year.

Visit your child's classroom. Make an appointment to observe your child in the classroom.

Review your child's records. Ensure that your own records at home coincide with those kept at school.  If necessary, make an appointment with the school to review the school's records and request an updated copy of those records.

Before the PPT meeting, be sure you understand the nature and basis of your child's disability. Do you have enough information? Have you reviewed the evaluation reports? Do you understand the meaning of the diagnosis? Make sure you understand any "jargon."

Become familiar with the laws of both state and federal government pertaining to special education issues. Read the "Procedural Safeguards" pamphlet provided by this school district informing you of your rights.  Feel free to ask questions.

Communicate with the school. Avoiding surprises at PPT meetings will enhance school/parent partnerships. If you anticipate requesting new services, further evaluations, or will be inviting others to the PPT meeting, inform the school team and give them a copy of any request(s) beforehand.

·          Prepare to share what you know about your child.  Record information about your child, such as interests, hobbies, relationships with family and friends, behavior at home, things she/he does well, or has difficulty with.

·          Prepare questions. Bring with you a list of any questions you would like to discuss at the meeting.

·          Be prepared to discuss expectations for your child.  Inform the school staff what you think your child needs and the extent of progress you would like to see during the school year.  You should consider your child's vocational and pre-vocational needs.

·          Staff should receive beforehand any recent evaluations or reports done outside the school that you believe will be of value to your child's educational planning or that you wish to discuss in the PPT meeting.

·          Bring samples of your child's work from activities done in or out of school that you believe says something about your child.

Talk to other parents you know who have attended PPT meetings to learn from their experiences. Attend support groups and informational meetings and seminars.

Think about whether or not your child should be involved at the PPT meeting, and discuss your thoughts with school personnel. Students ages 14 and older should be encouraged to attend.

Keep a file of all your communications with the school, written or spoken.

Understand the concept of least restrictive environment (LRE, p. 18).

Be open to suggestions from team members; consider and weigh the options carefully.

If you believe you need more time to review reports given to you the day of the PPT, ask to reconvene the meeting so you can participate fully after reading them.

Make sure you understand the jargon that educators will be using. It's okay to ask questions to make sure you understand what will be happening next and what your role will be in the total process.

Try to keep calm and to listen to what is being said. If you find yourself getting upset, ask to reschedule the meeting. Remember we are trying to work together to produce a plan for your child's success in school.

Your child's IEP must be reviewed periodically and no less than annually.  You should receive a full copy of the IEP, including the recommendations and summary page, if used, within 5 working days of the PPT meeting.  Review these, and make sure they accurately reflect the consensus of the team.  If they do not, send a letter to the school stating what you believe the minutes should include.  Anytime you make a request of the team, both that request as well as the outcome of that request, must be reflected in the record.  Parent signature is not required at a PPT meeting, except for the following reasons:

  • Consent to evaluate and to re-evaluate your child
  • Initial consent to receive special education services
  • Consent for out of district placement

Helpful Suggestions for Teachers and Staff in Preparation for a PPT


Communicate with parents. Avoiding surprises at PPT meetings will enhance school/parent partnership.

  • Before PPT meetings, discuss with parents student’s current functioning.
  • Know the student and be able to talk about the student’s strengths as well as his/her academic and behavioral problems.
  • Bring with you samples of the student’s work to share (best work sample and work demonstrating areas of concern).
  • When appropriate, have a written draft of IEP goals and objectives that you believe should be reviewed at the PPT.
  • Present information using jargon-free terms.
  • Think of your presentation as a summary, highlighting the most important points already shared with parents and leading toward the development of the goals, objectives and programs.
  • Monitor parent understanding at various points in the meeting; restate or repeat information to clarify for parents.

Be Flexible:

  • Listen to information that parents offer about their child as they are partners in the PPT process.
  • Recognize that parent input is important in the development of the IEP.
  • Seek consensus. Remember, sharing a variety of perceptions can lead to creative problem solving.

If the PPT does not have the full information to make an IEP decision on a program, service(s), or placement requested, the following may happen:

The Chairperson may adjourn and reconvene the PPT at a later date in order to

·         research the request to obtain more information/data.

·         add additional team members to assist in evaluating the request (speech/language pathologist, school psychologist, special services administrator, medical advisor, school and/or out of school consultant(s), etc.).

Time Lines

IEP services are implemented within

·          45 school days of referral for in-district placements

·          60 school days for out of district placements

The 45/60 day school days timeline is exclusive of the time required for obtaining parental consent for evaluation or placement.

Parents should receive written notice of

·          a referral to special education to discuss the referral within 5 school days after the referral is made.

·          a PPT meeting scheduled at a mutually convenient time at least 5 school days prior to the meeting.

Parents should receive a copy of the IEP five (5) school days after the IEP meeting.

The IEP should be reviewed at least annually.

Failure of parents to respond within 10 school days from the date of notice shall be construed as refusal of consent.

* Timelines are time limits imposed by law.

The Evaluation Process

A full and individual evaluation is ensured for each student being considered for special education. This is a problem-solving process involving many ways of collecting information. Information may be gathered through informal and formal observations, review of records and school work, discussion with teachers, standardized testing and checklists.

Reasons for evaluation include

·         determination of a disability requiring special education services (specially  designed instruction and related services), and

·         determination of a student's educational needs.

Parents will receive notice of a Planning and Placement Team meeting to discuss the evaluation plan for their child.

A multidisciplinary team, a group of professionals, must conduct the evaluation. This team includes at least one teacher or other specialist with knowledge in the area of the student's suspected disability. 

More than one instrument or procedure must be used as a basis for determining need for services

Tests must be non-discriminatory and administered in the student's native language and primary means of communication.

The team must collect information from a variety of sources which may include observations, parent interview, and review of pertinent medical history.

Parents must be informed in their native language of the school's intent to evaluate their child and of their rights pertaining to special education services.

Parents must give their consent in writing before any evaluation can take place.

Once the evaluation has been completed, the results will be shared with parents. They may wish to discuss the results at an informal meeting prior to the PPT. They should make sure they fully understand the results and conclusions drawn from the evaluation so that they may work confidently with professionals in planning services for their child. If a parent disagrees with the results, they may request an independent evaluation. The independent evaluator must be certified/licensed and qualified to conduct the evaluation. The Board of Education must pay for the independent evaluation or initiate due process if the school's evaluation is believed to be appropriate. The PPT may request, if appropriate, that the parent's personal insurance be used to help defray the cost of all independent evaluations agreed to by the PPT.


A  review or re-evaluation is conducted at least every three years to determine whether or not the student continues to have a disability that requires special education and related services, and whether or not the student's program is appropriate to meet his/her needs.

A re-evaluation is necessary but does not necessarily have to include formal testing/evaluation.

The team must determine whether additional assessment data is needed.

·          Parental consent is not required for

·          reviewing existing data.

·          administering a test used with all students unless consent is required of all parents.

·          observations in the educational setting.

·          Parental consent is required for additional assessments (i.e.,  psychological, educational, speech and language evaluations) to be conducted.

·          It is not necessary to administer the same battery of tests or procedures  administered for the previous battery.  The student should be assessed in all areas related to the suspected disability.

There is no need for a re-evaluation for graduation with a regular high school diploma or when a student is no longer eligible due to age (21).

However, written prior notice of these events is required.

 A student must be re-evaluated prior to his/her exiting from special education, except in the case of high school graduation.

Eligibility:  Determining Which Children 
Are Eligible for Special Education Services

After evaluation, the Planning and Placement team meets to determine the eligibility of a student for special education and related services. As parents, you have the right to participate in this important meeting as partners. The following definitions describe which areas of special needs qualify a student for special education services. The results and conclusions of your child's evaluation are compared to these definitions. If the results correspond with one of more definitions, your child will be eligible for special education services.

Definitions of Exceptionalities for Which Students Can Be Eligible for Special Education Services (34CFR300.5(b))


A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a learner's educational performance.

Hearing Impairment

An impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a learner's educational performance.

Specific Learning Disability

A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, to think, to speak, to read, to write, to spell, or to do mathematical calculations (Sec. 602(26)(A)).

·          Such term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia (Sec. 602(26)(B)).

·          Such term does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage (Sec. 602(26)(C)).

·          In making a determination of eligibility…a  learner shall not be determined to be a learner with a disability if the determinant factor is lack of instruction in reading, math or limited English proficiency (Sec.(b)(5)).

Intellectual Disability/Mental Retardation

Significant sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, which adversely affects a learner's educational performance.

Multiple Disabilities

Concomitant impairments (such as mental retardation-blindness, mental retardation-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.

Neurological Impairment (CT Only)

An impairment of the nervous system diagnosed by an appropriate medical specialist as the cause of physical and psychological disabilities which significantly impede the learner's rate of educational development and which can be corrected or ameliorated by special education to the extent that the learner's rate of educational development may be improved.

Orthopedic Impairment

A severe orthopedic impairment which adversely affects the learner's educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease, and impairments from other causes.

Other Health Impairment

Having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment.

Speech and/or Language Impairment

A communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a student's educational performance.

Traumatic Brain Injury

An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force resulting in total or partial functional disability and/or psychosocial impairment.

Visual Impairment

A measurable visual impairment which, even after correction, continues to adversely affect the learner's educational performance. The term shall include both partially seeing and blind students.

Developmental Delay  (CT. Ages 3 - 5)  (300.313)

A child experiencing developmental delay as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures in one or more of the following areas: physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional development or adaptive development.

In Connecticut a developmental delay is defined as:

·          two standard deviations below the mean in one area of development or

·          one and one-half (1.5) standard deviations below the mean in two areas of development.


Concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs designed solely for learners with deafness or blindness.


A hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects educational performance.

Serious Emotional Disturbance

A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree which adversely effects educational performance.

·          An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.

·          An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.

·          Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings exhibited or expressed under otherwise normal circumstances.

·          A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.

·          A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

The term includes learners who are schizophrenic. The term does not apply to learners  who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they are seriously emotionally disturbed.

*Note: Having one of the listed disabilities is not enough to qualify a student for special education.  IDEA requires evidence that the disability adversely affects a student's performance at school.

The Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Once a student has been determined eligible to receive special education and related services, the PPT team begins the process of developing an individualized education program (IEP) to meet the specific educational needs of the student.

Each student eligible for specialized instruction is afforded a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). 

The standards set for an appropriate educational program

  • provide instruction and services to meet the student's unique and individual needs.
  • provide the student with a program resulting in some meaningful educational benefit.
  • conform to the student's IEP.

The development of the IEP gives parents the opportunity to work with educators as equal partners to identify both the student's educational needs and the services that will be provided to meet those needs and to determine what the specific goals may be. The process of collaborative goal setting allows both educators and parents to combine their separate areas of expertise to plan for the specific needs of the student.

The IEP is a document, a written description of the program developed for the student. It is a contract in writing identifying the resources the school agrees to provide. The IEP is developed at the Planning and Placement Team meeting. A proposed IEP may be presented at the meeting to save time, but changes can and should be made as the team works together to develop the program.

The IEP should include

  • a statement of the child's present level of educational performance including, as appropriate, academic achievement, communication social/emotional, vocational  psychomotor, and self help skills.
  • a statement of annual educational goals.
  • a statement of short-term instructional objectives leading toward the accomplishment of set  goals.
  • a statement of specific educational services to be provided including special education and related services and the recommended instructional settings.
  • a listing of the individuals responsible for the implementation of the IEP components and their time involvement.
  • the date when the services will begin, the length of time the services will be provided, and the length of school day and school year needed to meet the student's education needs. When appropriate, extended school year needs should be documented.
  • the extent to which the student will participate in the general education program  with typical peers.
  • modification and accommodations necessary for the student (instructional, environmental, and technological).

 Tips for Parents - IEP 

  •  Ask for suggestions regarding how you can continue, expand and, reinforce school activities at home
  •  Take the time to explain any special equipment your child uses.
  •  Inform the teacher of any activities or significant events that may influence your child's performance in school.
  •  Let the school know that you would like to be called if you are needed.
  • Remember both you and the school want the best for your child. Working together can make that happen.
  •  Ask that samples of your child's work be sent home. If you have questions, make an appointment with the teacher(s) and significant others to discuss new strategies to meet your child's goals.
  •  Take the initiative. If you want to meet with the teacher, call him or her to arrange a visit.
  •  While you are in the classroom, observe how your child participates. Does the teacher expect the child to participate fully and treat your child the same way others are treated?
  •  Is your child reasonably happy? Does he or she feel pretty good about school? Talk to your child about what's going on in school.
  •  Does your child seem to be making progress toward the goals of the IEP?  If not, and you see signs of lack of progress, it is your responsibility to contact the school to talk about that lack of progress. Remember, you and the school are on the same side: your child's!

Related Services and Supplementary Aids and Services

IDEA '97 mandates that the IEP include "a statement of the special education and related services and supplementary aides and services to be provided to the student…" (Section 614(d)).

Related Services:

The need for related services is individually determined through the PPT.

Related services must have a relationship to the student's educational needs and must be necessary to give the student the opportunity to benefit from his or her specialized instructional program.

IDEA defines related services as

  • transportation

  • speech & language pathology services

  • audiology

  • physical therapy

  • occupational therapy

  • assistive technology

  • recreation

  • social work services

  • medical services (for diagnostic & evaluation purposes only)

  • school health services

  • counseling services, and such developmental, corrective, and other supportive services as may be required to assist a student with a disability to benefit from special education

The district provides related services through its own certified/licensed personnel and also by contracting with other agencies and/or individuals who provide the services.

 Related services can be delivered directly in a one-to-one or group situation or indirectly by consultation with teachers and other school personnel so they may carry out interventions throughout the school day.

 Supplementary Aids and Services:

Supplementary aids and services must support student advancement toward attaining annual goals and/or support the student's involvement and progress in the general curriculum. Examples:


·          Team meeting time

·          Functional behavioral assessment

·          Staff development

·          Behavioral support plan

·          Adapted materials

·          Peer supports, tutorial

·          Preferential seating

·          Adjustment in workload/homework

·          Consultation with specialist

·          Strategies instruction


 Least Restrictive Environment

Of all the terminology relating to special education, least restrictive environment (LRE) is probably the most difficult to understand. LRE means that when deciding where a student should receive his or her special education, the PPT must first consider the general education classroom with supplementary aids and services first and then proceed from there as the chart below demonstrates.  Students with disabilities have a legal right to the greatest amount of inclusion, which is appropriate to their unique needs.  Although federal law does not require the best education, it does require an appropriate education in the least restrictive environment.  "Appropriate" education is determined on an individual basis.

If It is feasible to plan a program of special services and adaptations so that a student with disabilities can make satisfactory progress in the general education classroom, then it is not appropriate to segregate the student from his/her non-disabled peers. Congress and the U.S. Department of Education have placed an emphasis on each student's civil right to be protected from unnecessary segregation. Decisions regarding placement are made by the PPT based on the student's immediate needs. First consideration of placement should be at the student's neighborhood school.

The law requires us to provide special education to students in the least restrictive environment. Additionally, we are also required to provide a continuum of services to students. This means the school needs to make available a variety of environments in which individual students may succeed. 

Least Restrictive                                                                       Most Restrictive

Regular education with consultation
  Regular education with direct in-class special education support
    Resource room special education support
      Self contained special program
        Out of district – Day Treatment Placement
          Residential/Hospitalization Placement


Private School Unilateral Placements

Parents have the right and privilege to place their child in a non-public private day or residential school at their own expense. The Clinton Board of Education will assume responsibility for non-public private school special education placements approved by the Connecticut State Department of Education only when the placement is recommended by a duly constituted Planning and Placement Team.

Parents are advised that students with special education needs who are unilaterally enrolled in private schools by their parents are not entitled to a free appropriate public education (FAPE). This means that such students do not receive all the special education services they normally would receive if they attended a public school program. A PPT meeting may be held to determine what level of service(s) identified in the student's IEP will be implemented, as well as the location of the special education services.

Districts are not obligated to create IEPs for such students. Instead, districts must develop a Services Plan that will provide such students the services the district has determined it will make available. The plan must "to the extent appropriate" meet IEP requirements regarding the services to be provided; moreover, these services must be developed, reviewed, and revised in accordance with IEP and Planning and Placement Team requirements. 

Please contact the Special Services Department prior to enrolling your child in a non-public school to discuss the amount of special education services for which  your child may be eligible under state and federal regulations.

Transition Into the Adult World

Creating a Vision for the Future

What is Transition Planning and Why is it Important?

Transition into the adult world can present challenges for all young people. The process of transition may be more difficult for some youths with disabilities and will require unique strategies to enable each student to achieve the maximum possible independence in working, living, and participating in the community as adults.

Transition planning is a process that brings together a student and those individuals directly involved in helping the student prepare to enter a post-school environment. It is designed to ensure that the student will be provided the necessary skills and services to make a smooth transition from school to adult life with as little interruption as possible. Unless the transition process is formalized, little thought or planning is given to the student's future service or program needs.

·          When a student reaches  age 14 and for each year thereafter, his/her IEP must include a statement of the transition services needed by that student (such as participation in advanced placement or vocational education classes).

·          When a student reaches age 16 (or younger, if determined appropriate), his/her IEP must include a statement of needed transition services including interagency linkages or responsibilities.

·          Beginning at least one year before a student reaches age 18 (in Connecticut), his/her IEP must include a statement that the student has been informed of his /her rights under IDEA that will transfer to the student upon his/her reaching the age of majority.

The IEP team meets to assist the young student in defining a vision for the future. Representatives from other agencies may be invited to the meeting, if appropriate. The overall value of the meeting is the sharing of knowledge about the student's strengths, interests, and preferences in order to create a map of where help is needed and what experiences are going to be valuable over the high school years.

Three areas must be discussed by the IEP team in a transition planning meeting:

1.      What is the student's long- term goal in the area of Employment or Postsecondary Education?

2.      What is the student's long- term goal in the area of Independent Living?

3.      What is the student's long- term goal in the area of Community Participation?

Transition Planning as a Collaborative Effort

No one individual or agency can provide comprehensive transition planning for a student. Transition planning requires the collective effort and commitment of all key stakeholders in a student's life. As the transition planning team begins to form, it is critical that members know why they were serving on the team and their role in assisting the student to identify and to plan for his/her future.

What information should be gathered?

In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of student's abilities and strengths, the transition planning team should look at a variety of assessment information:

&  Academic, achievement

&  Interests, preferences

&  Personal history

&  Medical background

&  Social skills

&  Learning styles

&  Daily living skills

&  Employment related skills (Evaluation from job sites both in-school and in the community may be included.)

It is important to remember that transition planning is a collaborative effort and requires the participation and commitment of the student, parents, all appropriate disciplines in the school, community representatives, and state agency personnel, if appropriate.

The transition goals and objectives must be based upon an individual student's needs, taking into account the student's preferences and interests, and include instruction (school-based learning activities) and community experiences (learning activities in the community). Transition goals are part of the student's IEP.

If the PPT meeting determines that the services are not needed in one or more of the areas specified (in the definition of transition services and/or IEP requirements), the IEP must include a statement to that effect and the basis upon which the determination was made.

Since the statement of transition services is a part of the IEP, the PPT must reconsider transition goals and objectives at least annually. The most appropriate time to do this is at the annual PPT meeting. This meeting does not preclude the request for an additional meeting to formulate transition goals and objectives if time at the regular PPT does not permit this to occur.

(Adapted from Transition Planning for Students with Disabilities, Connecticut's Transition Systems Change Grant, Parent Trainer Network.)

Due Process

Due Process under special education is a term used for a legal procedure that seeks to ensure the rights of parents if they believe the district has denied their child special education service. Parents or educational professionals can institute due process when there is disagreement regarding a child's identification, evaluation, eligibility, individualized educational program (IEP), or placement.

Mediation: This process provides a means by which the parents and the school officials can resolve problems through consensus.  It is an informal discussion between parents, school personnel, and an impartial third party.  Either parents or the school district may initiate mediation. Parents and school officials may or may not choose to have an attorney present.

Advisory Opinion Process: This process allows parents and school districts one hour each to present their case via witnesses and documents to a hearing officer who will then issue a brief oral non-binding advisory opinion. Based upon this advisory opinion, the parties may assess their respective positions and elect either to settle a case or to proceed to a full hearing with a different hearing officer.

The Advisory Opinion Process is voluntary, and both parties must agree to participate. The parties may request an advisory opinion

1.                  after, or simultaneously with, a mediation or hearing request; or

2.                  before, or after, the convening of the pre-hearing conference but before the hearing convenes.

Hearing: Under state and federal laws, a parent has the right to request, in writing, a hearing. This is a formal process for which a Hearing Officer will be assigned by the State Department of Education; parents and school officials may have attorneys present, and both sides may be cross examined. If parents disagree with the findings of a hearing officer, they may appeal that decision.

It is always advisable that parents and educators seek other ways to resolve their differences prior to a formal due process hearing or mediation.

For further information regarding due process, please refer to the Procedural Safeguards for Parents of Children in Special Education, located in the appendices.

Summary of Parental Rights Regarding Records

The following is a summary of the parental rights associated with educational records:

  • The right to request a list of the types and locations of education records collected, maintained, and used by the school system.
  • The right to know who has access to these records, including the names and positions of staff members.
  • The right to inspect and review all education records pertaining to their child. If the school district maintains education records that include the names of more than one child, parents have the right to view information pertinent only to their child. Records will be made available within ten (10) days and within three (3) days if information is needed to plan for due process or a PPT meeting.
  • The right to have an explanation and an interpretation of their child's records.
  • The right to acquire one free copy of their child's records. A nominal fee may be charged for additional copies. This request is honored within five (5) days. The school district may not charge a fee to search for or to retrieve information, and any fee charged may not effectively deny parents their rights to inspect and review education records.
  • The right to have the parents' authorized representative inspect and review their child's records.
  • The right to request an amendment to their child's education records if the parents consider information to be inaccurate, misleading, or in violation of privacy. A request for an amendment must be in writing and will be acted upon within a two week period.
  • The right to a hearing if the parents' request to amend their child's records is refused.
  • The right to place a statement in their child's records if the hearing decides against amending the information as the parents requested. This statement will be maintained as long as their child's record is maintained and will be disclosed whenever the record is disclosed.
  • The right to be informed when the information in their child's records is no longer useful.

Prior written consent is not required

  • when disclosure is made to a school official, when  that person has a legitimate educational interest in the information (most often applied to teachers and other school employees working directly with the student - may also apply to school administrators, school district attorneys , school medical advisor, and, on occasion, outside consultants).

CONFIDENTIALITY - In compliance with Clinton Public Schools Board of Education policy and State and Federal regulations, the Clinton Public Schools  strictly adheres to maintaining confidentiality of student records. Parents who wish to inspect their child's records are invited to contact the Director of Special Services.


A Successful Partnership is When School and Parent Work Together

The Clinton School System supports the belief that it is essential to the effective implementation of a student’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) when the school, parents and student accept the responsibility to work together in order for the student to receive educational benefit from his/her prescribed program. The student must receive a message of solidarity. The Clinton Schools’ staff, recognizing individual differences, interests, and abilities, provides encouragement for independent and creative thinking, instills in each student the enjoyment of learning, the satisfaction of setting and achieving academic and personal goals, and the importance of self-respect and respect for others. 

Expectations for students include:

q       respecting

§         other people and property.

§         school and classroom rules.

q       assuming responsibility for

§         one's own behavior (verbal and physical).

§         one's own learning.

§         coming to school prepared.

§         completing assigned work.

§         using time wisely.

q       organizing work assignments

§         by asking for assistance in organizing self and assignment(s), if necessary.

§         by asking questions of teachers if unsure of assignment(s) or what is being asked of him/her.

q       cooperating with peers/teachers/staff/administrators.

q       communicating at school and at home issues/concerns regarding everyday activities.

Expectations for parents include:

q       providing a set time and place for studying and homework.

q       teaching your child

§         to organize time.

§         to check his/her planner.

 q     checking to see that homework is completed.

q     communicating with your child and school.

§          Avoid giving your child mixed messages – support teacher(s).

§          Call and get the full story – give a message of solidarity .

q        impressing upon the child  the importance of hard work.

q        encouraging appropriate language and behavior with peers and adult      authority figures.

·         Give message that  your child is responsible and accountable for his/her learning and behavior.

·          Encourage your child  to build on his/her strengths and instill in him/her an "I can" rather than "I can't because I have a disability."

Expectations for school personnel include

q       being sensitive to parents' issues and concerns regarding their child.

q       becoming familiar with each student's IEP or Section 504 Accommodations Plan.

q       teaching lessons using a variety of modalities to meet the needs of students in the class.

q       teaching organization and study skills as they relate to curriculum being taught.

q       encouraging students to uphold the rules of the school and classroom .

q       being a role model for students by what he/she does and says.

q       regularly communicate the progress of the student to the student as well as to the parents.

q       giving students encouragement to improve academically, instilling in them an "I can" rather than "I can't because I have a disability."

q       providing varied learning opportunities by which students can succeed.

q       providing a positive, inclusive atmosphere in which feelings of trust, respect, and acceptance of individual  differences are conveyed.

q       discussing with parents issues which influence their child's success at  school.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

Students with disabilities who do not qualify for special education services may be eligible to receive accommodations and/or modifications to their general education program under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against students and adults who have a disability.  In order to fulfill its obligation under Section 504, the Clinton Public Schools recognizes a responsibility to avoid discrimination in policies and practices regarding its personnel and students.  Discrimination against any person with a handicap/disability will not knowingly be permitted in any of the programs and practices in Clinton.

Specifically, the Act states:

“No otherwise qualified individual with handicaps in the United States shall, solely by  reason of her or his handicap, as defined in section 706(8) of this title, be excluded from the participation, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance or under any program or activity conducted by an Executive agency or by the United States Postal Service.”

(29 U.S.C. Sec. 794)

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act insures that school districts make accommodations to allow students with disabilities an opportunity to participate in school and school-related activities.

The Act defines a person with a disability as anyone who

  1. has a mental or physical impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities such as caring for one’s self, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, and working;
  1. has a record of such an impairment; or
  1. is regarded as having such an impairment.

                        Some examples of potential 504 handicapping conditions are

                                    Communicable diseases (HIV, Tuberculosis)

                                    Medical conditions (asthma, allergies, diabetes, heart disease)

                                    Temporary medical conditions due to illness or accident

                                    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD, ADHD)

                                    Behavioral difficulties

                                    Other conditions

The Clinton Public Schools has specific responsibilities under the Act, which include the responsibility to identify, evaluate, and if the child is determined to be eligible under Section 504, to afford access to appropriate educational services and program accommodations. 

Appropriate educational services under 504 refers to an education comparable to the education provided to non-handicapped students, requiring that accommodations be made.  Related services, independent of any special education services as defined under IDEA, may be the accommodation. 

The Coordinator of Section 504 in Clinton Public Schools is the Director of Special Services.

State of Connecticut Department of Education

Division of  Educational Programs and Services

Bureau of Special Education and Pupil Services


Steps to Protect a Child’s Right  to Special Education:  Procedural Safeguards



Attention Deficit Disorder


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder


Association for Retarded Citizens


Board of Education and Services for the Blind


Bureau of Rehabilitation Services


Connecticut Parent Advocacy Center


Chronological Age


Cystic Fibrosis


Council for Exceptional Children


Cerebral Palsy


Child Study Team/Student Study Team


Department of Children and Families


Department of Mental Health


Department of Mental Retardation


Date of Birth


Department of Public Health and Addiction Services


Early Childhood Network


Emotionally Disturbed


Education of the Handicapped Act (Public Law 94‑142‑ now called IDEA)


Early Intervention Project


Extend School Year


Functional Behavioral Assessment


Free and Appropriate Public Education


Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997) (new title for EHA)


Individualized Education Plan


Individual Family Service Plan


Intelligent Quotient


Learning Disability


Local Education Agency


Least Restrictive Environment


Mental Age


Muscular Dystrophy


Mental Retardation


Multiple Sclerosis


Neurobiological Disorders


Occupational Therapy


Pervasive Developmental Disorder

PL 94-142

Education of Handicapped Act (now IDEA, 1997)

PL 99-457

Education of Handicapped Act, Amend. of 1986 (relates to infants /toddlers)


Planning and Placement Team


Physical Therapy


Regional Education Service Center


Regional Family Service Coordination Center


Student Assistance Team


U.S. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills

SEC. 504

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973


Special Education Resource Center


Speech and Language Pathologist


School to Career


School to Work Opportunities Act


Traumatic Brain Injury


Teletypewriting Device, Teletypewriter


Accessible: the term used to describe a building which can be easily entered, approached or used by a person with a disability. The term also can be used to describe a program that is adapted for a person with a disability.

Adapted Physical Education: specially designed instruction in physical education to meet the unique needs of a student with a disability.

Adaptive Behavior: how a person with a disability adjusts to his/her surroundings.

Advocacy: supporting someone in a cause; representing or speaking for another person.

Annual Goals: statements on the IEP that describe what a student can be expected to accomplish in one year in the area of need.

Annual Review: a meeting held each year to review the previous year's IEP and to write a new IEP for the upcoming school year.

Appropriate Education: This term has been defined through court cases (Springdale v. Grace; BOE v. Rowley; Frank v. Grover) stating that the education program provided had to be sufficient to confer some meaningful educational benefit on the student.

Assistive Technology: one of the related services under IDEA; any item, piece of equipment or system used to increase, maintain or improve the developmental capabilities of a child with special needs.

Auditory Discrimination: the ability to identify the differences between sounds.

Birth to three: Intervention services are offered to families whose children are identified as having developmental delays. This program is the primary responsibility of the State of Connecticut.  Parents can call Birth to Three at 1-800-505-7000 for more information.

Child Find: A program which locates and identifies children from ages birth through 21 who may be in need of special education and related services.

A formal preschool Child Find screening (ages 3 - 5) is held monthly during the school  year in Clinton. Dates are announced in school newsletters and in local newspapers.  Screenings are also done through referrals from agencies (Birth to Three,  pediatricians, Well Child clinics, parents, etc.)

Cognitive: a term used to describe the process people use for remembering, reasoning, understanding, and using judgment.

Concept: a mental image, thought, opinion or idea.

Consultation: process that occurs when a team of educators ( and support staff who have diverse expertise work together to deliberately and creatively plan successful educational programs for children.

Curriculum Adaptations: changes made on the general classroom curriculum that allow a child to actively participate at his or her own level and meet his or her individual goals.

Developmental: having to do with the steps or stages in growth and development before the age of 18.

Due Process: a series of steps safeguarded by law (IDEA ) that protect the rights of parents and their children with disabilities.

Eligibility: PPT determines whether a child qualifies to receive special education and related services under IDEA guidelines.

Evaluation: Must be conducted to determine whether a child has a disability and to determine the child's specific needs. Evaluations include review of student's records, assessments (Curriculum, State and District), observations. Evaluations also refer to assessments (tests) that may include intelligence (cognitive), achievement, speech and language, behavioral checklists, motor, social development, etc.

Expressive Language: The ability to convert language and present it verbally, in writing, or by gestures.

Extended School Year Services: special education and related services that are provided outside the normal school year.

Free Appropriate Public Education: A mandated requirement that children and youth (3-21 years) with disabilities receive a public education appropriate to their needs at no cost to families.

Fine Motor Skills: the use of small muscle groups for specific tasks such as handwriting.

Gross Motor Skills: skills using large muscles for activities such as walking, running an other whole body movements.

Independent Educational Evaluation: an evaluation conducted by a qualified examiner who is not employed by the school district responsible for the education of the child. 

Individualized Education Program: an education program for a child with disabilities written according to the guidelines of IDEA and developed by a Planning and Placement Team with specific components to be reviewed annually.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) : Federal law dealing with the process of providing children with disabilities a free, appropriate, public education.

Instructional Strategies: specific methods and materials that will be used in teaching the student.

Intelligence Quotient (IQ ) : The score on a test which measures mental development. The average score for the general population is 100.

Least Restrictive Environment: To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities are educated with children who are non‑ disabled: and that special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular education environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in the regular class with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be satisfactorily achieved.

Manifestation Determination PPT: When a child is removed from class for more than ten consecutive school days or is subjected to a series of removals that constitute a pattern because they cumulate to more than ten school days in a school year it is considered a change in placement. A PPT must be held to develop a Functional Behavioral Assessment  and Behavioral Intervention Plan and to determine if the behavior is a manifestation of the student's disabilities.

Mediation: a means to facilitate an agreement between parties, prior to a due process hearing, with respect to any matter relating to identification, evaluation or educational placement of a child or to the provision of a free appropriate public education.

Multidisciplinary: More than two (2) professionals represented or contributing to a common objective, such as an evaluation team consisting of a special educator, a school psychologist, a social worker and a classroom teacher

Neurological: relating to the nervous system.

Objectives: the specific, intermediate steps that must be taken to reach the annual goals, a component of the I EP (Individualized Education Program.)

Perceptual Skills: the ability to select, organize and understand information through the senses.

Psychomotor: a term used to describe operations that combine the use of both mental and physical processes, such as playing ball or handwriting.

Percentile: a type of test score that compares a person's performance to the performance of others the same age or grade.

Planning and Placement Team (PPT): A multidisciplinary group of professionals and parents responsible for completing the special education procedural process in a thorough and timely manner. The PPT is responsible for recommending evaluations; determining special education eligibility; developing IEP's and determining special education programs and related services.  Membership of the PPT may change depending upon the purpose of the meeting.

Receptive Language: the ability to receive and understand information from others.

Referral: the process of bringing a student to the attention of the school staff to determine if the student is eligible for special education services.

Related Services: Transportation and any developmental, corrective, and supportive services necessary to help a student with a disability benefit from special education.

School Consultants: School consultations may be sought by the district to assist in clarifying information presented at PPTs.  They could range from medical, psychiatric, educational, etc. Consultants may review students’ general and special education records, including evaluations by the district and those administered by outside consultants, meet with the Planning and Placement Team members, observe the student and conduct staff in-service training. With permission the consultant may interview the parents and the student. Services of school consultants are provided on a contractual basis.

Visual Discrimination: visual adeptness at perceiving likenesses and differences in figures, symbols, pictures and words.

Vocational: having to do with training in a skill or trade leading to employment.

Connecticut State Resources 

Adapted from NICHY





George Dowaliby, Chief

Bur. Of Special Educ. & Pupil Svcs.

CT Dept. of Education

25 Industrial Park Road

Middletown, CT 06457‑1520

(860) 807‑2025






John F. Halliday, Director

Bureau of Rehabilitation Services

Department of Social Services

25 Sigourney Street

Hartford, CT 06106

(860) 424‑4848






Maria Synodi, 3‑5 Coord., State Preschool


Bureau of Early Childhood Education &

Social Svcs.

CT Department of Education

25 Industrial Park Road

Middletown, CT 06457

(806) 807‑2054








Karen Anderson, Director of Mental Health

Department of Children & Families

505 Hudson Street

Hartford, CT 06106

(860) 550‑6683






Linda Goodman, Birth‑3 Part C Coordinator

State Birth to Three System

Department of Mental Retardation

460 Capitol Avenue

Hartford, CT 06106

(860) 418‑6147; (800) 505‑7000 (In CT)

(860) 571‑7556






Peter O'Meara, Commissioner

Department of Mental Retardation

460 Capitol Avenue

Hartford, CT 06106

(860) 418‑6000






Lisa Davis, Supervisor

Maternal & Child Health Unit

410 Capital Avenue, MF #911 MAT

PO Box 340308

Hartford, CT 06134‑0308

(860) 509‑8074




Attention Deficit Disorder

To identify an ADD group in your state or

locality, contact either:


Children and Adults with Attention­

Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CH.A.D.D.)

8181 Professional Place, Suite 201

Landover, MD 20785

(301) 306‑7070

(800) 233‑4050

(Voice mail to request information packet)

E‑mail: national@chadd.or



National Attention Deficit Disorder

Association (ADDA)

PO Box 1303

Northbrook, IL 60065‑1303







Kenneth R. Tripp, Executive Director

Board of Education and Services for the Blind


184 Windsor Avenue

Windsor, CT 06095

(860) 566‑5800




To identify an autism group in our state,


Autism Society of America

7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 300

Bethesda, MD 20814

(301) 657‑0881; (800) 3‑AUTISM

Web: www.autism‑






Stacie Mawson, Executive Director

Connecticut Commission on the Deaf and

Hearing Impaired

1245 Farmington Avenue

West Hartford, CT 06107

(860) 561‑0196 (V/TTY)





Brain Injury Association of CT

1800 Silas Deane Highway, Suite 224

Rocky Hill, CT 06067

(860) 721‑8111; (800) 278‑8242 (in CT)




Barry Buxbaum, President/CEO

St. Vincents Special Needs Services

Trumbull Corporate Park, 95 Merritt Blvd

Trumbull, CT 06611

(203) 375‑6400




Linda Wallace, Executive Director

Epilepsy Foundation of CT, Inc.

1800 Silas Deane Highway, Suite 168

Rocky Hill, CT 6067

(860) 721‑9226; (800) 899‑3745 (In CT)



Hillary Pease, Executive Director

Learning Disabilities Association of CT


999 Asylum Avenue

Hartford, CT 06105

(860) 560‑1715, ext. 204


Beryl Kaufman, Executive Director

The CT Association for Children

With Learning Disabilities (CACLD)

25 Van Vent Street, Suite 15‑5

East Norwalk, CT 06855

(203) 838‑5010






Beverly Walton, President & CEO

Mental Health Association of CT

20‑30 Beaver Road, Suite 101

Wethersfield, CT 06109

(860) 529‑1970



Tracy Carroll, Executive Director


151 New Park Avenue

Hartford, CT 06106

(860) 586‑2319; (800) 215‑3021







Margaret Dignot, Executive Director

The Arc of Connecticut

1030 New Britain Avenue, Suite 102B

West Hartford, CT 06110

(860) 953‑8335





Andrew Lees, President

CT Speech‑Language‑Hearing Association

213 Back Lane

Newington, CT 06111‑4204

(860) 666‑6900






Spina Bifida Association of Connecticut

PO Box 2545

Hartford, CT 08146‑2545

(860) 464‑2512




American Foundation for the Blind

11 Penn Plaza, Suite 300

New York, NY 10001

(212) 502‑7600; (212) 502‑7662 (TTY)







John M. Ficarro, Project Director

Bureau of Rehabilitation Services


25 Sigoumey Street, 11th Floor

Hartford, CT 06106

(860) 424‑4881; (800) 537‑2549

(860) 424‑4839 (TTY)







Nancy Prescott, Director

Connecticut Parent Advocacy Center (CPAC)

338 Main Street

Niantic, CT 06357

(860) 739‑3089; (800) 454‑2722 (In CT)







Parent‑to‑Parent Network of CT

Connecticut Children's Medical Center

282 Washington Street

Hartford, CT 06106

(860) 545‑9021



Pat Tomka, Coordinator


11 Lake Avenue Ext.

Danbury, CT 06811

(203) 792‑3540






John R. Quinn, President

Easter Seals Connecticut

147 Jones Street

Hebron, CT 06248

(860) 228‑9438; (800) 832‑4409

E‑mail: ‑



Molly Cole, Director

The Family Center

CT Children's Medical Center

282 Washington Street

Hartford, CT 06106

(860) 545‑9023



Web Sites

The interactive guide to learning disabilities for parents, teachers and children


P.O. Box 2626

Washington, DC 20013

Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Disorders


499 Northwest 70th Ave, Suite 101

Plantation, Florida 33317


Learning Disabilities Association

                                4156 Library Road

                                Pittsburgh, PA 15234‑1349


Council for Exceptional Children

                            P.O. Box 79026

                            Baltimore MD 21279‑0026

The Orton Dyslexia Society

8600 LaSalle Rd.

Chester Building, Suite 382

Baltimore, MD 21286‑2044


National Attention Deficit Disorder Association

Box 972

Mentor, Ohio 44061




Parents' Educational Resource Center

1660 s. Amphlett Blvd. Suite 200

San Mateo, CA 94402

Special Education Resources on the Internet

A collection of Internet accessible information resources of interest to those involved in

the fields related to Special Education  

All Kinds of Minds

P.O. Box 3580

Chapel Hill, NC 27515

919‑933‑8082 fax 919‑967‑3590 email

Aspen Of America, Inc.

                                information source formed to increase awareness of and support for individuals affected

                                with the following neurological disorders: Asperger Syndrome, High Functioning Autism,

                                Hyperlexia, Nonverbal Learning Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Semantic­

                                Pragmatic Disorder

                                P.O. Box 2577

                                Jacksonville FL 32203‑2577     National information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities    Family Village - A Global Community of Disability-Related Resources




Special Ed Advocate


National Organization on Disability




NICHCY (National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities


National Parent to Parent Support and Information System, Inc.


The U.S. Department of Education


ERIC (Educational Clearinghouse of Disabilities and Gifted Education)


PTI (Parent Training and Information Centers)


RESNA ( Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology)


CHADD ( Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Disorder)


Autism Society of America


Learning Disabilities Association of America


Council for Learning Disabilities


NCLD (National Center for Learning disabilities)


PERC (Parents and Educators Resource Center)


LD Online


American Speech Language Hearing Association


The ADA National Access for Public Schools Project


NIDRR (national Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research)


US Department of Education Office for Civil Rights


CT. Birth to Three System

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